EE2404POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LABORATORYANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS EEE
EE2404 POWER
SYSTEM SIMULATION LABORATORY L T P C
0 0 3
AIM:
To acquire software development skills and experience in the usage of standard packages necessary for analysis and simulation of power system required for its planning, operation and
control.
OBJECTIVES:
i. To develop simple C programs for the following basic requirements:
a) Formation of bus admittance and impedance matrices and network solution.
b) Power flow solution of
small systems
using simple
method, GaussSeidel P.F. method.
c) Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch.
II. To acquire experience in the usage of standard packages for the following analysis / simulation / control functions.
d) Steadystate analysis of large system using NRPF and FDPF methods.
e) Quasi steadystate (Fault) analysis for balanced and unbalanced faults.
f)
Transient stability simulation of multimachine power
system.
g) Simulation of LoadFrequency Dynamics and control of power system.
1. Computation of Parameters and Modelling of Transmission Lines
2. Formation of Bus Admittance and Impedance Matrices and Solution of Networks.
3. Load Flow
Analysis  I : Solution of Load Flow And Related Problems Using
GaussSeidel Method
4. Load Flow Analysis  II: Solution of Load Flow and Related Problems Using Newton Raphson and FastDecoupled Methods
5. Fault Analysis
6. Transient and Small
Signal Stability Analysis: SingleMachine Infinite Bus System
7. Transient Stability Analysis of Multimachine Power Systems
8. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems
9. Load – Frequency Dynamics of Single Area and TwoArea Power Systems
10. Economic Dispatch in Power Systems.
TOTAL : 45 PERIODS
DETAILED SYLLABUS
1. COMPUTATION OF PARAMETERS AND
MODELLING OF TRANSMISSION
LINES
Aim
(i) To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometer of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor
arrangements.
(ii) To understand modelling and performance of short, medium and long lines.
Exercises
Computation of series inductance and shunt capacitance per phase per km of a three phase line
with flat horizontal spacing for
single stranded and bundle conductor
configuration.
Computation of series inductance and shunt capacitance per phase per km of a three phase double circuit transmission line with vertical conductor
arrangement with bundle conductor.
Computation of voltage, current, power factor, regulation and efficiency at the receiving end of a three phase Transmission line when the voltage and power
at the sending end are given. Use П
model.
Computation of receiving end voltage of a long transmission for a given sending end voltage and
when the line is open circuited at receiving. Also compute the shunt reactor
compensation to limit the no load receiving end voltage to specified value.
Determination of the voltage profile along the long transmission line for
the following cases of
loading at receiving end (i)
no
load (ii) rated load (iii) surge impedance loading and (iv)
receiving
end short circuited.
2. FORMATION OF BUS ADMITTANCE AND
IMPEDANCE MATRICES AND
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
AIM
To understand the formation of network matrices, the bus admittance matrix Y and the bus impedance matrix Z of a power network, to effect certain required changes on these matrices and to
obtain network solution using these matrices.
Exercises
2.1 Write a program in C language for formation of bus admittance matrix Y of a power network
using the “TwoRule
Method”, given the data pertaining to the transmission lines, transformers and shunt elements. Run the program
for a sample 6 bus system and compare the results with that obtained using a standard software.
2.2 Modify the program developed in 2.1 for
the following:
(i) To obtain modified Y matrix for
the outage of a transmission line, a
Transformer and a shunt element.
(ii) To obtain network solution V given the current injection vector I
(iii) To obtain full Z
matrix or certain specified columns of Z matrix.
Verify the correctness of the modified program using 6 bus sample system
* 2.3 Write a program
in
C language for forming bus impedance matrix Z using
the “Building Algorithm”.
* Optional (not mandatory)
EXPERIMENT 3
LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS  I : SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING
GAUSSSEIDEL METHOD
Aim
(i) To understand, the basic aspects of steady state analysis of power systems that are
required for effective planning and operation of power systems.
(ii)To understand, in particular, the mathematical formulation of load flow
model in complex form
and a simple method of solving load flow problems of small sized system using GaussSeidel iterative algorithm
Exercises
3.1 Write a program
in
c language for
iteratively solving load flow equations using
GaussSeidel method with provision for acceleration factor and for dealing
with PV buses. Run the program for a sample 6 bus system (Base case)
and compare the results with that obtained using a standard software.
3.2 Solve the “Base case” in 3.1 for different values of acceleration factor, draw the convergence
characteristics “Iteration taken for convergence versus acceleration factor” and determine the best acceleration factor for the system under study.
3.3 Solve the “Base Case” in 3.1 for the following changed conditions and comment on the results obtained, namely voltage magnitude of the load buses and transmission losses:
(i) Dropping all
shunt capacitors connected to network
(ii) Changing the voltage setting of generators Vgi over the range 1.00 to 1.05
(iii) Changing the tap setting of the transformers, ai, over the range 0.85 to 1.1
3.4 Resolve the base case in 3.1 after shifting generation from one generator bus to another generator bus and comment on the MW loading of lines and transformers.
4. LOAD
FLOW
ANALYSIS – I: SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND
RELATED
PROBLEMS USING NEWTONRAPHSON AND FAST DECOUPLED
METHODS
Aim
(i) To understand the following for
medium and large scale power
systems:
(a) Mathematical formulation of the load flow problem in real variable form
(b) NewtonRaphson method of load flow
(NRLF)
solution
(c) Fast Decoupled method of load flow
(FDLF) solution
(ii) To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas of power system planning and operation.
(iii) To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using Newton
Raphson and Fast Decoupled load flow methods.
Exercises
4.1 Solve the load flow problem (Base case) of a sample 6 bus system using GaussSeidel, Fast
Decoupled and NewtonRaphson Load Flow
programs for a mismatch convergence tolerance of
0.01 MW, plot the convergence characteristics
and compare the convergence rate of the three
methods.
4.2 Obtain an optimal (minimum transmission loss) load flow solution for the Base case loading of 6
bus sample system by trial and error approach through repeated load flow solutions using Fast
Decoupled Load Flow package for different
combinations of generator voltage settings,
transformer
tap settings, and reactive power of shunt elements.
4.3 Carry out contingency analysis on the optimal state obtained in 4.2 for outage of a transmission
line using FDLF or NRLF package.
4.4 Obtain load flow solutions using FDLF or NRLF package on the optimal state obtained in 4.2 but
with reduced power factor (increased Q load) load and comment on the system
voltage profile and transmission loss.
4.5 Determine the maximum loadability of a 2 bus system using analytical solution as well
as numerical solution using FDLF package. Draw
the PV curve of the system.
4.6 For the base case operating state of the 6 bus system
in
4.1 draw the PV curve for
the weakest load bus. Also obtain the voltage Stability Margin (MW Index) at different
operating states of the
system.
4.7 For the optimal operating state of 6 bus system obtained in 4.2 determine the
Available Transfer
Capability (ATC) between a given “source bus” and a given “s
4. FAULT ANALYSIS
AIM
To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under
faulted condition and to compute the fault level, postfault voltages and currents for different types of faults, both symmetric and unsymmetric.
Exercises
5.1 Calculate the fault current, post fault voltage and fault current through the branches for a three phase to
ground fault in a small power system and also study the effect of neighbouring system. Check the results using available software.
5.2 Obtain the fault current, fault MVA, Postfault bus voltages and fault current distribution for single
line to ground fault, linetoline fault and double line to ground fault for a small power system,
using the available software. Also check the fault current and fault MVA by hand calculation.
5.3 Carryout fault analysis for a sample power system for LLLG, LG, LL and LLG faults and prepare
the report.
6. TRANSIENT AND
SMALLSIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS: SINGLE
MACHINEINFINITE BUS SYSTEM
Aim
To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability analysis of Single
Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.
Exercises
For a typical power system comprising a generating, stepup transformer, doublecircuit transmission
line connected to infinite bus:
Transient
Stability Analysis
6.1 Hand calculation of the initial conditions necessary for the classical model of the
synchronous machine.
6.2 Hand computation of
critical
clearing
angle
and
time
for
the
fault
using equal area
criterion.
6.3 Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application, fault clearance by opening of one circuit using the software available and checking stability by plotting the swing curve.
6.4 Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through
trial and error
method using the software and checking with the hand computed value.
6.5 Repetition of the above for different fault locations and assessing the fault severity with respect to the location of fault
6.6 Determination of the steadystate and transient stability margins.
Smallsignal Stability Analysis:
6.7 Familiarity with linearised swing equation and characteristic equation and its roots, damped frequency of oscillation in Hz, damping ratio and undamped natural
frequency.
6.8 Forcefree time response for an initial condition using the available software.
6.9 Effect of positive, negative and zero damping.
7. TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTIMACHINE POWER
SYSTEMS
AIM
To become familiar with modelling aspects of synchronous machines and network, stateoftheart algorithm for simplified transient stability simulation, system behaviour when subjected to large disturbances in the presence of synchronous machine controllers and to become proficient in the
usage of the software to tackle real life problems encountered in the areas of power
system
planning
and operation.
EXERCISES
For typical multimachine power
system:
7.1 Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application, fault clearance by opening of a
line using the software available and assessing stability with and without controllers.
7.2 Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through trial and error method using the software.
7.3 Determination of transient stability margins.
7.4 Simulation of full load rejection with and without governor.
7.5 Simulation of loss of generation with and without governor.
7.6 Simulation of loss of excitation (optional).
7.7 Simulation of under frequency load shedding scheme (optional).
8. ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER
SYSTEMS Aim:
To study and understand the electromagnetic transient phenomena in power systems caused due to
switching and faults by using Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and to become proficient
in
the usage of EMTP to address problems in the areas of
over
voltage protection and mitigation
and insulation coordination of EHV systems.
Exercises
Using the EMTP software or equivalent
Simulation of singlephase energisation of the load through singlephase pimodel of a transmission line and understanding the effect of source inductance.
8.1 Simulation of
threephase energisation of
the
load
through
threephase pimodel
of a transmission line and understanding the effect of pole discrepancy of a circuit breaker.
8.2 Simulation of energisation of an openended singlephase distributed parameter
transmission
line and understanding the travelling wave effects.
8.3 Simulation of a threephase load energisation through a threephase distributed parameter line with simultaneous and asynchronous closing of circuit breaker
and studying the effects.
8.4 Study of transients due to single linetoground fault.
8.5 Computation of transient recovery voltage.
9. LOADFREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLEAREA
AND
TWO AREA POWER SYSTEMS
Aim
To become familiar with the modelling and analysis of loadfrequency and tieline flow dynamics of a
power system with loadfrequency
controller (LFC) under different control modes and to design
improved controllers to obtain the best system
response.
Exercises
9.1 Given the data for a SingleArea power system, simulate the loadfrequency dynamics (only
governor control) of this area for a step load disturbance of small magnitude, plot the time
response of frequency deviation and the corresponding change in turbine power. Check
the
value of steady state frequency
deviation obtained from simulation with that obtained by hand
calculation.
9.2 Carry out the simulation of loadfrequency dynamics of the SingleArea power system in 9.1
with Loadfrequency controller (Integral
controller) for different values of KI (gain of the
controller) and choose the best value of KI to give an “optimal” response with regard to peak
over
shoot, settling time, steadystate error
and MeanSumSquaredError.
[
9.3 Given the data for a twoarea (identical areas) power system, simulate the loadfrequency
dynamics (only governor control) of this system for a step load disturbance in one area and plot time response of frequency deviation, turbine power deviation and tieline power
deviation.
Compare the steadystate frequency deviation obtained with that obtained in the case of
singlearea system.
9.4 Carry out the simulation of loadfrequency dynamics of twoarea system
in
9.3 for
the following
control
modes:
(i) Flat tieline control
(ii) Flat frequency control
(iii) Frequency bias tieline control
and for the frequency bias Tieline control
mode, determine the optimal
values of gain and frequency bias factor required to get the “best”
time response.
9.5 Given the data for a twoarea (unequal areas) power system, determine the best controller parameters; gains and bias factors to give an optimal response for frequency deviation and tie
line deviations with regard to peak overshoot, settling time, steadystate error and
Mean
SumSquaredError.
10. ECONOMIC
DISPATCH IN POWER
SYSTEMS Aim
(i) To understand the basics of the problem of Economic Dispatch (ED) of optimally adjusting the generation schedules of thermal generating units to meet the system load which are required for unit commitment and economic operation of power
systems.
(ii) To understand the development of coordination equations (the mathematical model for ED)
without and with losses and operating constraints and solution of these equations using direct and iterative methods
Exercises
10.1. Write a program in ‘C’ language to solve economic dispatch problem of a power system
with only thermal units. Take production cost function as quadratic and neglect
transmission loss.
10.2. Write a program in ‘C’ language to solve economic dispatch problem of a power system.
Take production cost as quadratic and include transmission loss using loss coefficient.
Use λiteration algorithm for solving the coordination equations.
10.3. Determine using
the
program developed
in exercise 10.1
the
economic
generation
schedule of each unit and incremental cost of received power for a sample power system, for a given load cycle.
10.4. Determine using the program
developed in
exercise
10.2 the economic generation schedule of each unit, incremental cost of received power and transmission loss for
a sample system, for the given load levels.
10.5. Apply the software module developed in 10.1 to obtain an optimum unit commitment schedule for
a few load levels.
REQUIREMENT FOR A BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS
S.No.

Description of Equipment

Quantity
required

1.

Personal
computers (PentiumIV, 80GB, 512
MBRAM)

25

2.

Printer laser

1

3.

Dotmatrix

1

4.

Server (Pentium
IV, 80GB, 1GBRAM)
(High
Speed Processor)

1

5.

Software: E.M.T.P/ETAP/CYME/MIPOWER
/any power system
simulation software

5 licenses

6.

Compliers: C, C++, VB, VC++

25 users

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